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Spiritual Reading Culture in Medieval Western Christian Monasticism (c. 6-12.): Lectio Divina

Yıl 2022, Cilt 26, Sayı 1, 251 - 267, 15.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.18505/cuid.1071508

Öz

In this research, the key elements of lectio divina, which is a Western spiritual practice, were tried to be mentioned. Many new practices emerged in the transition from desert monasticism, where early Christian monasticism emerged, to the settled monastic order, which attached little importance to reading other than the Bible. The habit of reading has also become one of the indispensable elements of the monastery after the transition to the settled monasteries. The entry of this term into monastic literature dates back to St. Benedict (480-547), who included it in the daily monastic calendar as a kind of monastic discipline. The lectio practice applied in monasteries brought along some questions such as what the content of this reading activity is, how long it lasts and how it should be practiced. In this regard, the contributions of Cassiodorus (490-583), who was also a contemporary of St. Benedict, to the monastic literature and the ideal of the monastic school, are important. In addition, in this study, information is given about the monastery copying activities, which have an important place to be directly related to the lectio and ensuring the preservation of knowledge and transferring it to the next generations. From this point of view, it has been tried to examine the comments made by the monastic leaders from the early period to the 12th century on the pagan literature, which is not included in the Bible and religious works read in the monastic libraries. Lectio divina gained popularity among monasteries affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, and by the 12th century it had developed into the four-stage reading process known today by Guigo II. The details of this four-stage process were tried to be given in the last section and the study was concluded after the evaluations made in the conclusion section.

Kaynakça

  • A. Barney, Stephen. “Allegory”. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. ed. Joseph Reese Strayer. C. 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1982.
  • Abelson, Paul. The Seven Liberal Arts, a Study in Mediaeval Culture. New York, Teachers’ College, Columbia Univ., 1906.
  • Augustine. “On Christian Doctrine (De doctrina christiana)”. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers-1. ed. Philip Schaff. New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Co, 1890.
  • Augustine. The Monastic Rules (Ordo Monasterii). ed. Boniface Ramsey. Hyde Park, N.Y: New City Press, 1St Edition., 2004.
  • Augustine, St. The Works of St. Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century. ed. John E. Rotelle. çev. Edmund Hill. New Rochelle, New York: New City Press, 1993.
  • Avrin, Leila. Scribes, Script, and Books: The Book Arts from Antiquity to the Renaissance. American Library Association, 2010.
  • Aykıt, Dursun Ali. Hıristiyanlığın Öncüsü Olarak İskenderiyeli Philo. İstanbul: Kitabevi Yayınları, 2011.
  • Basileios. The Asketikon of St Basil the Great. çev. Anna M. Silvas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Benedictus. RB 1980: The Rule of St. Benedict in Latin and English with Notes. ed. Timothy Fry. Collegeville, Minn: The Liturgical Press, 1st Edition., 1981.
  • Benner, David G. Opening to God. Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 2010. Bernardus Claraevallensis Abbas. “Sermones In Cantica Canticorum”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Birney, William. “Did The Monks Preserve The Latin Classics?” The Monist 15/1 (1905), 87-108.
  • Bischoff, Bernhard. Manuscripts and Libraries in the Age of Charlemagne. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, A.D. 200-1000. Chichester, West Sussex ; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 3rd edition., 2013.
  • Cassian, John. “Conferences (Collationes)”. çev. Edgar C.S. Gibson. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. ed. Philip Schaff. The Newman Press, 1997.
  • Cassianus. “Institutes”. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers-2. ed. Philip Schaff. Edinburgh: T&T Clarke, 1994.
  • Cassiodore (Sénateur) vd. The Variae of Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator ...: Being Documents of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths in Italy ... Liverpool University Press, 1992.
  • Cassiodorus. “De Artibus Ac Disciplinis Liberalium Litterarum”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Cassiodorus. “De Institutione Divinarum Litterarum”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Cassiodorus. “De Orthographia”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Crislip, Andrew. “The Sin of Sloth or the Illness of the Demons? The Demon of Acedia in Early Christian Monasticism”. The Harvard Theological Review 98/2 (2005), 143-169.
  • Deseille, Placide. “Acedia According to the Monastic Tradition”. Cistercian Studies Quarterly 37/3 (2002).
  • Ferreolus Ucetienses Episcopus. “Regula ad Monachos”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Fried, Johannes. Charlemagne. Harvard University Press, 2016.
  • Glavich, Kathleen. Introducing Catholic Prayer for RCIA Leaders: A Companion to the Catholic Way to Pray. Twenty-Third Publications, 2009.
  • Green, Dennis Howard. Medieval Listening and Reading: The Primary Reception of German Literature 800-1300. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  • Guigo. Ladder of Monks and Twelve Meditations. çev. Edmund Collegde - James Walsh. Kalamazoo, Mich: Liturgical Press, Illustrated edition., 1981.
  • Güzeldal, Yasin. Aziz Benedikt ve Hıristiyan Manastır Yaşamı. İstanbul: Ayışığı Kitaplığı, 2021.
  • Güzeldal, Yasin. “Erken Dönem Orta Çağ Hristiyan Manastırlarında Bir Disiplin Aracı Olarak Fiziksel Ceza”. Dinbilimleri Akademik Araştırma Dergisi 21/1 (2021), 209-235.
  • Herrgott, Marquard. Vetus Disciplina Monastica, seu collectio auctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti maximam partem ineditorum, qui ante sexcentos fere annos per Italiam, Galliam atque Germaniam de monastica disciplina tractarunt. Parisiis: Caroli Osmont, 1726.
  • Howatson, M. C. (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature. OUP Oxford, 2013.
  • Isidorus Hispaliensis. “Sententiae”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862. Jerome. “Letter (Epistola)”. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers-1. ed. Philip Schaff. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1887.
  • Larsen, Lillian I. - Rubenson, Samuel. Monastic Education in Late Antiquity: The Transformation of Classical Paideia. Cambridge University Press, 2018.
  • Leclercq, Jean. The Love of Learning and The Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture. New York: Fordham University Press, 3rd edition., 1982.
  • Lejay, Paul. “Latin Literature in the Church”. Catholic Enyclopedia. 9/32-34. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908.
  • Lekai, Louis Julius. The White Monks. Cistercian Fathers, Our Lady of Spring Bank, 1st edition., 1953.
  • Mariano Magrassi. Praying the Bible: An Introduction to Lectio Divina. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1998.
  • Matheson, Lister M. Icons of the Middle Ages: Rulers, Writers, Rebels, and Saints. ABC-CLIO, 2012.
  • Mazzeo, Joseph A. “Allegorical Interpretation and History”. Comparative Literature 30/1 (1978), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.2307/1769561
  • Michael Casey. “Art of Lectio Divina”. The Benedictine Handbook. ed. Anthony Marett-Crosby. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 2003.
  • Morrison, Karl F. The Seven Liberal Arts in the Middle Ages. Indiana University Press, 1983.
  • O’Brien, Maureen M. (ed.). Bernard of Clairvaux: The Parables & the Sentences. çev. Michael Casey - Francis R. Swietek. Kalamazoo, Mich: Cistercian Pubns, 2000.
  • Pachomian Koinonia: II, Pachomian Chronicles and Rules. çev. Armand Veilleux OCSO. Kalamazoo, Mich: Liturgical Press, Annotated edition., 1981.
  • Olson, Paul A. The Journey to Wisdom: Self-Education in Patristic and Medieval Literature. U of Nebraska Press, 1995.
  • The Rule of the Master. çev. Luke Eberle OSB. Liturgical Press, 1977.
  • Özcan, Zeki. Teolojik Hermenötik. Alfa Yayınları, 2000.
  • P. De Letter - W. J. Hill. “Theology, History Of”. The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition (2nd edition). ed. Berard L. Marthaler. C. 13. Detroit : Washington, D.C: Gale Research Inc, 2002.
  • Philip Timko. “Cassiodorus”. Encyclopedia of Monasticism. 750-752. London: Routledge, 2000.
  • Reif, Stefan C. Judaism and Hebrew Prayer: New Perspectives on Jewish Liturgical History. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Robertson, Duncan. Lectio Divina: The Medieval Experience of Reading. Liturgical Press, 2011.
  • Saint Gregory Thaumaturgus. Life and Works (The Fathers of the Church, Volume 98). çev. Michael Slusser. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.
  • Sancti Ambrosi. “De officiis ministrorum”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Smeyers, Paul - Depaepe, Marc. Production, Presentation, and Acceleration of Educational Research: Could Less Be More? Springer Nature, 2021.
  • Studzinski, Raymond. Reading To Live: The Evolving Practice of Lectio Divina. Trappist, Ky. : Collegeville, Minn: Liturgical Press, Illustrated edition., 2009.
  • Tarakçı, Muhammet. “Origen ve Alegorik Kitab-ı Mukaddes Yorumu”. Uludağ Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19/1 (2010), 183-213.
  • Tertullianus. “De idolatria (On idolatry)”. çev. S. Thelwall. Ante-Nicene Fathers. ed. Alexander Roberts vd. New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886.
  • The Sayings of the Desert Fathers: The Alphabetical Collection. çev. Benedicta Ward. Kalamazoo, Mich: Liturgical Press, 1975.
  • Ward, John O. Classical Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: The Medieval Rhetors and Their Art 400–1300, with Manuscript Survey to 1500 CE. BRILL, 2018.
  • Wathen, Ambrose. “Monastic Lectio: Some Clues from Terminology”. Monastic Studies 12/ (1976), 207-216.
  • Webster, Raymund. “The Carthusian Order”. The Catholic Encyclopedia. C. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911.
  • Wingo, E. Otha. Latin Punctuation in the Classical Age. Walter de Gruyter, 2011.
  • Witt, Ronald G. The Two Latin Cultures and the Foundation of Renaissance Humanism in Medieval Italy. Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  • Wortley, John. An Introduction to the Desert Fathers. Cambridge, United Kingdom ; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2019.
  • “Catechism of the Catholic Church-Contemplative Prayer”. Erişim 02 Şubat 2022. https://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P9M.HTM
  • “Dei verbum”. Erişim 18 Ocak 2022. https://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19651118_dei-verbum_en.html
  • Kutsal Kitap: Tevrat, Zebur, İncil. İstanbul: Kitabı Mukaddes Şirketi - Yeni Yaşam Yayınları, 2009.
  • Liber precum : in quo variae et multae egregiae preces ex operibus SS. Patrum desumptae continenter ad usam cleri tum regularis tum seculalris ... Lutetiae [i.e. Paris, France] : L. Vives, 1857.
  • “The Archimedes Palimpsest”. Erişim 01 Şubat 2022. https://www.archimedespalimpsest.net/

Orta Çağ Batı Hıristiyan Manastırlarında (6-12. yy.) Manevi Okuma Kültürü: Lectio Divina

Yıl 2022, Cilt 26, Sayı 1, 251 - 267, 15.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.18505/cuid.1071508

Öz

Bu araştırmada özellikle Batılı bir manevi uygulama olan lectio divina'nın ana unsurlarından bahsedilmeye çalışılmıştır. Kutsal Kitap dışında okumaya çok fazla önem verilmeyen erken dönem Hıristiyan manastırcılığının ortaya çıktığı çöl keşişliğinden yerleşik manastır düzenine geçiş sürecinde birçok yeni uygulamalar ortaya çıkmıştır. Okuma alışkanlığı da yerleşik manastırlara geçildikten sonra manastırın vazgeçilmez unsurlarından biri haline gelmiştir. Bu terimin manastır literatürüne girmesi ise onu bir tür manastır disiplini olarak günlük manastır takvimine dahil eden Aziz Benedikt'e (MS 480-547) kadar uzanmaktadır. Manastırlarda uygulanan lectio uygulaması, bu okuma eyleminin içeriğinin ne olduğu, süresinin ne kadar olduğu ve nasıl tatbik edilmesi gerektiği gibi birtakım soruları da beraberinde getirmiştir. Bununla ilgili olarak, özellikle Aziz Benedikt'in de çağdaşı olan Cassiodorus'un manastır literatürüne yaptığı katkılar ve manastır okulu ideali önem arz etmektedir. Ayrıca çalışmada, lectio ile doğrudan ilişkili olması ve bilginin muhafazasının sağlanıp sonraki nesillere aktarılması açısından önemli bir yeri bulunan manastır kopyalama faaliyetleri hakkında da bilgi verilmiştir. Buradan hareketle, manastır kütüphanelerinde okunan Kutsal Kitap ve dini eserlerin dışında kalan pagan literatürüne dair, erken dönemden 12. yüzyıla kadar manastır önde gelenleri tarafından yapılan yorumlar incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Lectio divina, Roma Katolik Kilisesi'ne bağlı olan manastırlar arasında popülerlik kazanmış ve 12. yüzyıla gelindiğinde II. Guigo tarafından bugün bilinen hali olan dört aşamalı okuma sürecine dönüşmüştür. Bu dört aşamalı sürecin detayları ise son bölümde verilmeye çalışılmış ve sonuç bölümünde yapılan değerlendirmeler ile araştırma sonlandırılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • A. Barney, Stephen. “Allegory”. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. ed. Joseph Reese Strayer. C. 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1982.
  • Abelson, Paul. The Seven Liberal Arts, a Study in Mediaeval Culture. New York, Teachers’ College, Columbia Univ., 1906.
  • Augustine. “On Christian Doctrine (De doctrina christiana)”. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers-1. ed. Philip Schaff. New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Co, 1890.
  • Augustine. The Monastic Rules (Ordo Monasterii). ed. Boniface Ramsey. Hyde Park, N.Y: New City Press, 1St Edition., 2004.
  • Augustine, St. The Works of St. Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century. ed. John E. Rotelle. çev. Edmund Hill. New Rochelle, New York: New City Press, 1993.
  • Avrin, Leila. Scribes, Script, and Books: The Book Arts from Antiquity to the Renaissance. American Library Association, 2010.
  • Aykıt, Dursun Ali. Hıristiyanlığın Öncüsü Olarak İskenderiyeli Philo. İstanbul: Kitabevi Yayınları, 2011.
  • Basileios. The Asketikon of St Basil the Great. çev. Anna M. Silvas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Benedictus. RB 1980: The Rule of St. Benedict in Latin and English with Notes. ed. Timothy Fry. Collegeville, Minn: The Liturgical Press, 1st Edition., 1981.
  • Benner, David G. Opening to God. Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 2010. Bernardus Claraevallensis Abbas. “Sermones In Cantica Canticorum”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Birney, William. “Did The Monks Preserve The Latin Classics?” The Monist 15/1 (1905), 87-108.
  • Bischoff, Bernhard. Manuscripts and Libraries in the Age of Charlemagne. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, A.D. 200-1000. Chichester, West Sussex ; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 3rd edition., 2013.
  • Cassian, John. “Conferences (Collationes)”. çev. Edgar C.S. Gibson. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. ed. Philip Schaff. The Newman Press, 1997.
  • Cassianus. “Institutes”. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers-2. ed. Philip Schaff. Edinburgh: T&T Clarke, 1994.
  • Cassiodore (Sénateur) vd. The Variae of Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator ...: Being Documents of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths in Italy ... Liverpool University Press, 1992.
  • Cassiodorus. “De Artibus Ac Disciplinis Liberalium Litterarum”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Cassiodorus. “De Institutione Divinarum Litterarum”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Cassiodorus. “De Orthographia”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Crislip, Andrew. “The Sin of Sloth or the Illness of the Demons? The Demon of Acedia in Early Christian Monasticism”. The Harvard Theological Review 98/2 (2005), 143-169.
  • Deseille, Placide. “Acedia According to the Monastic Tradition”. Cistercian Studies Quarterly 37/3 (2002).
  • Ferreolus Ucetienses Episcopus. “Regula ad Monachos”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Fried, Johannes. Charlemagne. Harvard University Press, 2016.
  • Glavich, Kathleen. Introducing Catholic Prayer for RCIA Leaders: A Companion to the Catholic Way to Pray. Twenty-Third Publications, 2009.
  • Green, Dennis Howard. Medieval Listening and Reading: The Primary Reception of German Literature 800-1300. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  • Guigo. Ladder of Monks and Twelve Meditations. çev. Edmund Collegde - James Walsh. Kalamazoo, Mich: Liturgical Press, Illustrated edition., 1981.
  • Güzeldal, Yasin. Aziz Benedikt ve Hıristiyan Manastır Yaşamı. İstanbul: Ayışığı Kitaplığı, 2021.
  • Güzeldal, Yasin. “Erken Dönem Orta Çağ Hristiyan Manastırlarında Bir Disiplin Aracı Olarak Fiziksel Ceza”. Dinbilimleri Akademik Araştırma Dergisi 21/1 (2021), 209-235.
  • Herrgott, Marquard. Vetus Disciplina Monastica, seu collectio auctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti maximam partem ineditorum, qui ante sexcentos fere annos per Italiam, Galliam atque Germaniam de monastica disciplina tractarunt. Parisiis: Caroli Osmont, 1726.
  • Howatson, M. C. (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature. OUP Oxford, 2013.
  • Isidorus Hispaliensis. “Sententiae”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862. Jerome. “Letter (Epistola)”. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers-1. ed. Philip Schaff. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1887.
  • Larsen, Lillian I. - Rubenson, Samuel. Monastic Education in Late Antiquity: The Transformation of Classical Paideia. Cambridge University Press, 2018.
  • Leclercq, Jean. The Love of Learning and The Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture. New York: Fordham University Press, 3rd edition., 1982.
  • Lejay, Paul. “Latin Literature in the Church”. Catholic Enyclopedia. 9/32-34. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908.
  • Lekai, Louis Julius. The White Monks. Cistercian Fathers, Our Lady of Spring Bank, 1st edition., 1953.
  • Mariano Magrassi. Praying the Bible: An Introduction to Lectio Divina. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1998.
  • Matheson, Lister M. Icons of the Middle Ages: Rulers, Writers, Rebels, and Saints. ABC-CLIO, 2012.
  • Mazzeo, Joseph A. “Allegorical Interpretation and History”. Comparative Literature 30/1 (1978), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.2307/1769561
  • Michael Casey. “Art of Lectio Divina”. The Benedictine Handbook. ed. Anthony Marett-Crosby. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 2003.
  • Morrison, Karl F. The Seven Liberal Arts in the Middle Ages. Indiana University Press, 1983.
  • O’Brien, Maureen M. (ed.). Bernard of Clairvaux: The Parables & the Sentences. çev. Michael Casey - Francis R. Swietek. Kalamazoo, Mich: Cistercian Pubns, 2000.
  • Pachomian Koinonia: II, Pachomian Chronicles and Rules. çev. Armand Veilleux OCSO. Kalamazoo, Mich: Liturgical Press, Annotated edition., 1981.
  • Olson, Paul A. The Journey to Wisdom: Self-Education in Patristic and Medieval Literature. U of Nebraska Press, 1995.
  • The Rule of the Master. çev. Luke Eberle OSB. Liturgical Press, 1977.
  • Özcan, Zeki. Teolojik Hermenötik. Alfa Yayınları, 2000.
  • P. De Letter - W. J. Hill. “Theology, History Of”. The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition (2nd edition). ed. Berard L. Marthaler. C. 13. Detroit : Washington, D.C: Gale Research Inc, 2002.
  • Philip Timko. “Cassiodorus”. Encyclopedia of Monasticism. 750-752. London: Routledge, 2000.
  • Reif, Stefan C. Judaism and Hebrew Prayer: New Perspectives on Jewish Liturgical History. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Robertson, Duncan. Lectio Divina: The Medieval Experience of Reading. Liturgical Press, 2011.
  • Saint Gregory Thaumaturgus. Life and Works (The Fathers of the Church, Volume 98). çev. Michael Slusser. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.
  • Sancti Ambrosi. “De officiis ministrorum”. Patrologia Latina. ed. Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: J.P. Migne, 1862.
  • Smeyers, Paul - Depaepe, Marc. Production, Presentation, and Acceleration of Educational Research: Could Less Be More? Springer Nature, 2021.
  • Studzinski, Raymond. Reading To Live: The Evolving Practice of Lectio Divina. Trappist, Ky. : Collegeville, Minn: Liturgical Press, Illustrated edition., 2009.
  • Tarakçı, Muhammet. “Origen ve Alegorik Kitab-ı Mukaddes Yorumu”. Uludağ Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19/1 (2010), 183-213.
  • Tertullianus. “De idolatria (On idolatry)”. çev. S. Thelwall. Ante-Nicene Fathers. ed. Alexander Roberts vd. New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886.
  • The Sayings of the Desert Fathers: The Alphabetical Collection. çev. Benedicta Ward. Kalamazoo, Mich: Liturgical Press, 1975.
  • Ward, John O. Classical Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: The Medieval Rhetors and Their Art 400–1300, with Manuscript Survey to 1500 CE. BRILL, 2018.
  • Wathen, Ambrose. “Monastic Lectio: Some Clues from Terminology”. Monastic Studies 12/ (1976), 207-216.
  • Webster, Raymund. “The Carthusian Order”. The Catholic Encyclopedia. C. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911.
  • Wingo, E. Otha. Latin Punctuation in the Classical Age. Walter de Gruyter, 2011.
  • Witt, Ronald G. The Two Latin Cultures and the Foundation of Renaissance Humanism in Medieval Italy. Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  • Wortley, John. An Introduction to the Desert Fathers. Cambridge, United Kingdom ; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2019.
  • “Catechism of the Catholic Church-Contemplative Prayer”. Erişim 02 Şubat 2022. https://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P9M.HTM
  • “Dei verbum”. Erişim 18 Ocak 2022. https://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19651118_dei-verbum_en.html
  • Kutsal Kitap: Tevrat, Zebur, İncil. İstanbul: Kitabı Mukaddes Şirketi - Yeni Yaşam Yayınları, 2009.
  • Liber precum : in quo variae et multae egregiae preces ex operibus SS. Patrum desumptae continenter ad usam cleri tum regularis tum seculalris ... Lutetiae [i.e. Paris, France] : L. Vives, 1857.
  • “The Archimedes Palimpsest”. Erişim 01 Şubat 2022. https://www.archimedespalimpsest.net/

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Din Bilimi
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Yasin GÜZELDAL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
T.C. MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI
0000-0002-7349-5388
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Haziran 2022
Kabul Tarihi 31 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 26, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

ISNAD Güzeldal, Yasin . "Orta Çağ Batı Hıristiyan Manastırlarında (6-12. yy.) Manevi Okuma Kültürü: Lectio Divina". Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi 26 / 1 (Haziran 2022): 251-267 . https://doi.org/10.18505/cuid.1071508

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