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İsa Mesih’in Çarmıhtaki Yaraları: Hıristiyanlıkta Stigmata Anlayışının Tarihsel Gelişimi ve Türleri

Yıl 2022, Cilt 26, Sayı 1, 83 - 100, 15.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.18505/cuid.1064758

Öz

Kafasında dikenli taç, el ve ayaklarında çiviler ve göğsündeki mızrak yarasıyla Haça Gerilmiş Nasıralı İsa Mesih, Hıristiyanları yüzlerce yıldır meşgul etmiş ve etmeye de devam etmektedir. Bütün Hıristiyan inancı, sembolleştirilen bu olay ya da “günahkâr insanlığın kurtuluşu” için kendisini çarmıhta feda eden İsa merkezinde dönmektedir. Bu çerçevede Hıristiyanlar, her insanın, “model kurtarıcı” olarak Mesih’in hayatını taklit etmesi, özellikle çarmıhtaki yaralarını ve ıstırabını aynen yaşaması gerektiğine inanmaktadır. Bedeninde Mesih’in yara izlerini taşıdığını söyleyen ilk kişi Pavlus olmuştur. Onu, Asissili Francis ve diğerleri takip etmiş ve onlar stigmatikler/stigmata taşıyanlar olarak kabul edilmiştir. Ülkemizde, İsa hakkında çok sayıda çalışma yapılmış olmasına rağmen, stigmata konusuyla ilgili herhangi bir çalışmaya rastlanılmamıştır. Bundan dolayı bu makalede; İsa Mesih’in çarmıhtaki yara izlerinin, inananların bedeninde taşınması bağlamında stigmata anlayışının ortaya çıkışı, tarihsel gelişimi, Orta Çağ’daki algı biçimleriyle Pavlus ve Assisili Francis’in stigmataları ele alınacaktır. Böylece stigmata anlayışının, Hıristiyan dünyasındaki gelişimi ve ne kadar etkili olduğu ortaya konulmaya çalışılacaktır.

Kaynakça

  • Angenendt, Arnold. Grundformen der Frömmigkeit im Mittelalter (Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte -Band 68). München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2004.
  • Araz, Ömer Faruk. “Doketizm, Hz. İsa ve Kur’an: İslam Çarmıh Söylemini Doketizm’den mi Aldı?”. Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi 25/2 (December 2021), 713-734. Erişim 16 Aralık 2021. https://doi.org/10.18505/cuid.986404
  • Augustine of Hippo. Commentary on Galatians. 6/17. Erişim 20 Ekim 2021. https://sites.google.com/site/aquinasstudybible/home/galatians/augustine-on-galatians-6
  • Aydın, Mahmut. “Hıristiyanlık”. Yaşayan Dünya Dinleri. ed. Şinasi Gündüz. Ankara: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Yayınları, 2007.
  • Ballitch, Andrew S. “God the Son in the Theology of William Perkins”. Puritan Reformed Journal (PRJ) 9/2 (July 2017), 147-164.
  • Bauerschmidt, Frederick C. “The Wounds of Christ”. Literature and Theology 5/1 (March 1991), 83-100. Erişim 3 Ekim 2018. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23926649
  • Bingöl, Mustafa. “Peter Lombard’ın “Sentences”i Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme”. Ortaçağ Araştırmaları Dergisi 3/2 (Aralık 2020), 276-280.
  • Burns, Charlene P. E. “Stigmata”, Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion. ed. David Adams Leeming. 1730-1733. New York: Springer Reference, 2014.
  • Caesarius of Heisterbach. The Dialogue on Miracles. trans. H. von E. Scott - C. C. Swinton Bland, introdt. by G. G. Coulton, eds. G. G. Coulton - Eileen Power. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1929.
  • Chatterjee, Paroma. “Francis’s Secret Stigmata”. Art History 35 (February 2012), 38-61. Erişim 06 Ocak 2022. https://eds.s.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=c3e15671-7c23-49f2-be78-f7e9e7a6b9c3%40redis
  • Christopher Tyerman. Chronicles of the First Crusade 1096–1099. UK: Penguin Books, 2012.
  • Constable, Giles. Three Studies in Medieval Religious and Social Thought: The Interpretation of Mary and Martha, the Ideal of the Imitation of Christ, the Orders of Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Cooper, Stephen Andrew. Marius Victorinus' Commentary on Galatians- Oxford Early Christian Studies. USA: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Dört Kutsal Kitap Türkçe. Erişim 20 Ağustos 2021. Kitab-ı Mukaddes cümleleri, çevirim dışı çalışan bu programdan alınmıştır. https://www.fullprogramlarindir.net/dort-kutsal-kitap-turkce-3-ucretsiz-indir.html
  • English, Edward D. “Damian, Peter (Peter Damiani)”. Encyclopedia of the Medieval World. 210. USA: Facts On File, 2005.
  • English, Edward D. “Pallium”. Encyclopedia of the Medieval World. 551. USA: Facts On File, 2005.
  • Eroğlu, Ahmet Hikmet. “Hıristiyanlık”. Dinler Tarihi El Kitabı. ed. Baki Adam. Ankara: Grafiker Yayınları, 2017, 152-153.
  • Falconer, Colin. Stigmata. London: Corvus, 2012.
  • Franco, Bradley R. “The Functions of Early Franciscan Art”. The World of St. Francis of Assisi: Essays in Honor of William R. Cook. eds. Bradley R. Franco- Beth A. Mulvaney. 11/ 19-44. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2015.
  • Glucklich, Ariel. Sacred Pain Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul. New York: Oxpord University Press, 2oo1.
  • Hamm, Berndt. The Reformation of Faith in the Context of Late Medieval Theology and Piety. ed. Robert James Bast. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2004.
  • Herodotos: Herodot Tarihi. (Halikarnassoslu Herodotos Tarihi ya da Her Biri Bir Musa Adı Taşıyan Dokuz Kitabı), çev. Müntekim Ökmen. Yunanca Aslıyla Karşılaştıran ve Sunan Azra Erhat. İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi Yayınları, 1973.
  • Hodl, L. “Die Sentenzen des Petrus Lombardus in der Diskussion seiner Schule”. Mediaeval Commentaries on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. ed. G. R. Evans. 1/25-40. Leiden: Brill, 2002.
  • Jerome, St. Commentary on Galatians. trans. Andrew Cain. (Fathers of the Church Patristic Series 121). Washington: The Catholic University of America Press, 2010.
  • Johnson, Kirk A. Medical Stigmata: Race, Medicine, and the Pursuit of Theological Liberation. USA: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.
  • Katar, Mehmet “Kefaret” Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 25/177-179. İstanbul: TDV Yayınları, 2002.
  • Kiely, Robert. “Further Considerations of the Holy Stigmata of St. Francis: Where Was Brother Leo?”. Religion And The Arts 3/1: 20-40. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, 1999.
  • Leslie A.- St. L. Toke. “St. Peter Damian (Damiani)”. The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Mexico-Philip. ed. Charles G. Herbermann. 11/1706-1710. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 2005.
  • Matter, E. Ann. The Voice of My Beloved:The Song of Songs in Western Medieval Christianity- The Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.
  • Muessig, Carolyn. “Signs of Salvation: The Evolution of Stigmatic Spirituality Before Francis of Assisi”. Church History 82/1 (March 2013), 40-68. doi:10.1017/S000964071200251X
  • Mullen, Robert F. “Holy Stigmata, Anorexia and Self-Mutilation: Parallels in Pain and Imagining”. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 9/ 25 (Spring 2010), 91-110.
  • Murray, Wendy. A Mended and Broken Heart The Life and Love of Francis of Assisi. New York: Basic Books, 2008.
  • Nicolle, David. The First Crusade 1096–99: Conquest of the Holy Land. UK: Osprey Publishing, 2003.
  • Öncel, Süheylâ. İtalyan Edebiyat Tarihi I (Başlangıç Döneminden Aydınlanma Çağına Kadar). Ankara: İtalyan Kültür Heyeti, 1997.
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, The Growth of Medieval Theology-3, 600-1300. Chicago/London: University Of Chicago Press, 1978.
  • Perschbacher, Wesley J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. USA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1990.
  • Purkis, William J. “Stigmata on the First Crusade”. Signs, Wonders, Miracles Representations of Divine Power in the Life of the Church- Studies in Church History 5/41 (2005), 99-108. Stigmata on the First Crusade, Published online by Cambridge University Press: 21 March 2016). Extract Erişim 15 Aralık 2021. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/studies-in-church-history/article/abs/stigmata-on-the-first-crusade/9DAF1FAAF611D1666A59C0748849FCE9
  • Ranft, Patricia. Medieval Theology of Work: Peter Damian and the Medieval Religious Renewal Movement- New Middle Ages. Chennai: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
  • Ray, Reginald A. The Awakening Body: Somatic Meditation for Discovering Our Deepest Life. Boulder- Colorado: Shambhala Publications, 2016.
  • Rowley, Sharon M. The Old English Version of Bedes Historia Ecclesiastica-Anglo-Saxon Studies 16. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2011.
  • Sava, Anthony F. “The wounds of Christ”. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 16/4, (October, 1954), 438-443.
  • Segel, Lawrence. “The Medicine of History The Stigmata”, The Canadian Journal of Diagnosis (July 2002), 37-41. Erişim 30 Ocak 2019. http://www.stacommunications.com/journals/diagnosis/2002/07_July/medofhist.pdf
  • Siwek, P. “Stigmatization”. New Catholic Encyclopedia. 13/ 530-532. USA: Thomson/Gale Group, 2002.
  • “Stigmata”. Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. ed. Gordon Melton. 2/1494-1496. USA: Gale Group, 2001.
  • Şakiroğlu, Mahmut H. “Haç”, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 14/ 522-524. İstanbul: TDV Yayınları, 1996.
  • Tarakçı, Muhammet. “Fransisken ve Dominiken Tarikatları”. Felsefe Ansiklopedisi. 6/829-831. ed. Ahmet Cevizci. Ankara: Ebabil, 2009.
  • The Stigmata Of Jesus Christ: Biblical and Theological Reflections (Spring-Time Feast of the Precious Blood). revist. Joseph Henchey. 1/57. b.y.y.: CSS, 2008.
  • Thompson, Augustine. Francis of Assisi: A New Biography. Ithaca/London: Cornell University Press, 2012.
  • Tommaso da Celano. Vita Prima: di San Francesco D’assisi. Erişim 25 Aralık 2021. http://www.santuariodelibera.it/FontiFrancescane/framevitaprima.htm
  • Tümer, Günay. “Çarmıh”, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 8/230. İstanbul: TDV Yayınları, 1993.
  • Vauchez, André. Francis of Assisi : The Life and Afterlife of a Medieval Saint. trans. by Michael F. Cusato. USA: Yale University Press, 2012.
  • Viviers, Hendrik. “The Second Christ, Saint Francis of Assisi and Ecological Consciousness”. Verbum et Ecclesia 35/1: 1-9 (January 2014), (Erişim 27 Aralık 2017). DOI:10.4102/ve.v35i1.1310
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonsure , Erişim 11 Aralık 2021.
  • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Catholic_Encyclopedia,_volume_11.djvu/871, Erişim 31 Ağustos 2021.
  • https://www.britannica.com/place/Low-Countries , Erişim 20 Aralık 2021.

The Wounds of Jesus Christ on the Cross: Historical Development and Types of Stigmata Understanding in Christianity

Yıl 2022, Cilt 26, Sayı 1, 83 - 100, 15.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.18505/cuid.1064758

Öz

With a crown of thorns on his head, nails in his hands and feet, and a spear wound in his chest, Jesus Christ of Nazareth, who was hanging on the Cross, has occupied Christians for hundreds of years and continues to do so. All Christian faith centres around Jesus, who sacrificed himself on the crucifix for this symbolized event, or "salvation of sinful mankind." In this framework, Christians believe that every human being should imitate the life of Christ as a "model savior", and especially experience the same wounds and passion on the crucifix. Paul was the first to say that he had the scars of Christ on his body. Francis of Assisi and others followed him, and they were considered stigmatics/stigmata bearers. In our country, although there have been many studies on Jesus, no study on the subject of stigmata has been found. Therefore, in this article, the emergence of the understanding of stigmata in the context of bearing the wounds of Jesus Christ on the cross on the body of believers, its historical development, the perceptions of the Middle Ages and the stigmata of Paul and Francis of Assisi will be discussed. Thus, the development of the understanding of stigmata in the Christian world and how effective it is will be tried to be revealed.

Kaynakça

  • Angenendt, Arnold. Grundformen der Frömmigkeit im Mittelalter (Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte -Band 68). München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2004.
  • Araz, Ömer Faruk. “Doketizm, Hz. İsa ve Kur’an: İslam Çarmıh Söylemini Doketizm’den mi Aldı?”. Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi 25/2 (December 2021), 713-734. Erişim 16 Aralık 2021. https://doi.org/10.18505/cuid.986404
  • Augustine of Hippo. Commentary on Galatians. 6/17. Erişim 20 Ekim 2021. https://sites.google.com/site/aquinasstudybible/home/galatians/augustine-on-galatians-6
  • Aydın, Mahmut. “Hıristiyanlık”. Yaşayan Dünya Dinleri. ed. Şinasi Gündüz. Ankara: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Yayınları, 2007.
  • Ballitch, Andrew S. “God the Son in the Theology of William Perkins”. Puritan Reformed Journal (PRJ) 9/2 (July 2017), 147-164.
  • Bauerschmidt, Frederick C. “The Wounds of Christ”. Literature and Theology 5/1 (March 1991), 83-100. Erişim 3 Ekim 2018. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23926649
  • Bingöl, Mustafa. “Peter Lombard’ın “Sentences”i Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme”. Ortaçağ Araştırmaları Dergisi 3/2 (Aralık 2020), 276-280.
  • Burns, Charlene P. E. “Stigmata”, Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion. ed. David Adams Leeming. 1730-1733. New York: Springer Reference, 2014.
  • Caesarius of Heisterbach. The Dialogue on Miracles. trans. H. von E. Scott - C. C. Swinton Bland, introdt. by G. G. Coulton, eds. G. G. Coulton - Eileen Power. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1929.
  • Chatterjee, Paroma. “Francis’s Secret Stigmata”. Art History 35 (February 2012), 38-61. Erişim 06 Ocak 2022. https://eds.s.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=c3e15671-7c23-49f2-be78-f7e9e7a6b9c3%40redis
  • Christopher Tyerman. Chronicles of the First Crusade 1096–1099. UK: Penguin Books, 2012.
  • Constable, Giles. Three Studies in Medieval Religious and Social Thought: The Interpretation of Mary and Martha, the Ideal of the Imitation of Christ, the Orders of Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Cooper, Stephen Andrew. Marius Victorinus' Commentary on Galatians- Oxford Early Christian Studies. USA: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Dört Kutsal Kitap Türkçe. Erişim 20 Ağustos 2021. Kitab-ı Mukaddes cümleleri, çevirim dışı çalışan bu programdan alınmıştır. https://www.fullprogramlarindir.net/dort-kutsal-kitap-turkce-3-ucretsiz-indir.html
  • English, Edward D. “Damian, Peter (Peter Damiani)”. Encyclopedia of the Medieval World. 210. USA: Facts On File, 2005.
  • English, Edward D. “Pallium”. Encyclopedia of the Medieval World. 551. USA: Facts On File, 2005.
  • Eroğlu, Ahmet Hikmet. “Hıristiyanlık”. Dinler Tarihi El Kitabı. ed. Baki Adam. Ankara: Grafiker Yayınları, 2017, 152-153.
  • Falconer, Colin. Stigmata. London: Corvus, 2012.
  • Franco, Bradley R. “The Functions of Early Franciscan Art”. The World of St. Francis of Assisi: Essays in Honor of William R. Cook. eds. Bradley R. Franco- Beth A. Mulvaney. 11/ 19-44. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2015.
  • Glucklich, Ariel. Sacred Pain Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul. New York: Oxpord University Press, 2oo1.
  • Hamm, Berndt. The Reformation of Faith in the Context of Late Medieval Theology and Piety. ed. Robert James Bast. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2004.
  • Herodotos: Herodot Tarihi. (Halikarnassoslu Herodotos Tarihi ya da Her Biri Bir Musa Adı Taşıyan Dokuz Kitabı), çev. Müntekim Ökmen. Yunanca Aslıyla Karşılaştıran ve Sunan Azra Erhat. İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi Yayınları, 1973.
  • Hodl, L. “Die Sentenzen des Petrus Lombardus in der Diskussion seiner Schule”. Mediaeval Commentaries on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. ed. G. R. Evans. 1/25-40. Leiden: Brill, 2002.
  • Jerome, St. Commentary on Galatians. trans. Andrew Cain. (Fathers of the Church Patristic Series 121). Washington: The Catholic University of America Press, 2010.
  • Johnson, Kirk A. Medical Stigmata: Race, Medicine, and the Pursuit of Theological Liberation. USA: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.
  • Katar, Mehmet “Kefaret” Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 25/177-179. İstanbul: TDV Yayınları, 2002.
  • Kiely, Robert. “Further Considerations of the Holy Stigmata of St. Francis: Where Was Brother Leo?”. Religion And The Arts 3/1: 20-40. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, 1999.
  • Leslie A.- St. L. Toke. “St. Peter Damian (Damiani)”. The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Mexico-Philip. ed. Charles G. Herbermann. 11/1706-1710. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 2005.
  • Matter, E. Ann. The Voice of My Beloved:The Song of Songs in Western Medieval Christianity- The Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.
  • Muessig, Carolyn. “Signs of Salvation: The Evolution of Stigmatic Spirituality Before Francis of Assisi”. Church History 82/1 (March 2013), 40-68. doi:10.1017/S000964071200251X
  • Mullen, Robert F. “Holy Stigmata, Anorexia and Self-Mutilation: Parallels in Pain and Imagining”. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 9/ 25 (Spring 2010), 91-110.
  • Murray, Wendy. A Mended and Broken Heart The Life and Love of Francis of Assisi. New York: Basic Books, 2008.
  • Nicolle, David. The First Crusade 1096–99: Conquest of the Holy Land. UK: Osprey Publishing, 2003.
  • Öncel, Süheylâ. İtalyan Edebiyat Tarihi I (Başlangıç Döneminden Aydınlanma Çağına Kadar). Ankara: İtalyan Kültür Heyeti, 1997.
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, The Growth of Medieval Theology-3, 600-1300. Chicago/London: University Of Chicago Press, 1978.
  • Perschbacher, Wesley J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. USA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1990.
  • Purkis, William J. “Stigmata on the First Crusade”. Signs, Wonders, Miracles Representations of Divine Power in the Life of the Church- Studies in Church History 5/41 (2005), 99-108. Stigmata on the First Crusade, Published online by Cambridge University Press: 21 March 2016). Extract Erişim 15 Aralık 2021. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/studies-in-church-history/article/abs/stigmata-on-the-first-crusade/9DAF1FAAF611D1666A59C0748849FCE9
  • Ranft, Patricia. Medieval Theology of Work: Peter Damian and the Medieval Religious Renewal Movement- New Middle Ages. Chennai: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
  • Ray, Reginald A. The Awakening Body: Somatic Meditation for Discovering Our Deepest Life. Boulder- Colorado: Shambhala Publications, 2016.
  • Rowley, Sharon M. The Old English Version of Bedes Historia Ecclesiastica-Anglo-Saxon Studies 16. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2011.
  • Sava, Anthony F. “The wounds of Christ”. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 16/4, (October, 1954), 438-443.
  • Segel, Lawrence. “The Medicine of History The Stigmata”, The Canadian Journal of Diagnosis (July 2002), 37-41. Erişim 30 Ocak 2019. http://www.stacommunications.com/journals/diagnosis/2002/07_July/medofhist.pdf
  • Siwek, P. “Stigmatization”. New Catholic Encyclopedia. 13/ 530-532. USA: Thomson/Gale Group, 2002.
  • “Stigmata”. Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. ed. Gordon Melton. 2/1494-1496. USA: Gale Group, 2001.
  • Şakiroğlu, Mahmut H. “Haç”, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 14/ 522-524. İstanbul: TDV Yayınları, 1996.
  • Tarakçı, Muhammet. “Fransisken ve Dominiken Tarikatları”. Felsefe Ansiklopedisi. 6/829-831. ed. Ahmet Cevizci. Ankara: Ebabil, 2009.
  • The Stigmata Of Jesus Christ: Biblical and Theological Reflections (Spring-Time Feast of the Precious Blood). revist. Joseph Henchey. 1/57. b.y.y.: CSS, 2008.
  • Thompson, Augustine. Francis of Assisi: A New Biography. Ithaca/London: Cornell University Press, 2012.
  • Tommaso da Celano. Vita Prima: di San Francesco D’assisi. Erişim 25 Aralık 2021. http://www.santuariodelibera.it/FontiFrancescane/framevitaprima.htm
  • Tümer, Günay. “Çarmıh”, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 8/230. İstanbul: TDV Yayınları, 1993.
  • Vauchez, André. Francis of Assisi : The Life and Afterlife of a Medieval Saint. trans. by Michael F. Cusato. USA: Yale University Press, 2012.
  • Viviers, Hendrik. “The Second Christ, Saint Francis of Assisi and Ecological Consciousness”. Verbum et Ecclesia 35/1: 1-9 (January 2014), (Erişim 27 Aralık 2017). DOI:10.4102/ve.v35i1.1310
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonsure , Erişim 11 Aralık 2021.
  • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Catholic_Encyclopedia,_volume_11.djvu/871, Erişim 31 Ağustos 2021.
  • https://www.britannica.com/place/Low-Countries , Erişim 20 Aralık 2021.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Din Bilimi
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Zekiye SÖNMEZ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İSLAMİ İLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1672-4823
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Haziran 2022
Kabul Tarihi 11 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 26, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

ISNAD Sönmez, Zekiye . "İsa Mesih’in Çarmıhtaki Yaraları: Hıristiyanlıkta Stigmata Anlayışının Tarihsel Gelişimi ve Türleri". Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi 26 / 1 (Haziran 2022): 83-100 . https://doi.org/10.18505/cuid.1064758

Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi Creative Commons Atıf-GayriTicari 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı (CC BY NC) ile lisanslanmıştır.